Industries run on a number of machines, and each machine has a thousand different parts to it. Valves are an important part of these machines – they control the flow of liquids and gases in piping systems. It’s important to learn the different types of industrial valves used in piping systems, and their classification, so that you can use the right one for your setup.
A valve is a mechanical device used in fluid systems to adjust the pipe’s route and regulate, steer, segregate, blend, or control the flow or pressure of a fluid. When a valve is open, the pathway is clear and the fluid moves from a higher pressure to a lower pressure environment. The flow can be decreased or halted entirely by completely or partially blocking the valve’s path.
Although technically a pipe fitting, valves are typically thought of independently from other fittings due to their important role, large variety of varieties, and operational possibilities. Different types of valves are used in the piping system, each with its own functionality. The cost of industrial valves can account for up to 30% of the total cost of the piping system in a plant, making them frequently the most expensive parts of the piping system.
Valves are essential for boosting a process’s efficiency, enhancing quality control, and assuring its constancy. The required function of the industrial valve is the main factor to be taken into account when choosing a valve. Valves are primarily used for isolation, regulation, and control.
When designing a manufacturing process or piping system, engineers generally specify the type of valve needed for the desired function on the Process and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID). Depending on the application, they can be classified according to their use, their operating principle, their structure, or their method of installation.
The most prevalent kind of industrial valves seen in process facilities are Gate Valves. A linear path is followed by the closing gate to either obstruct or let fluid passage. Gate valves are thought to be suited for practically all fluid services, including air, fuel gas, feed-water, steam, slurries, and viscous liquids, and they offer good cutoff.
A Globe Valve typically has a spherical body with a stationary ring seat and a moving plug element, separated by an internal baffle. The plug element is attached to an operational hand wheel by a stem, and is moved toward or away from the ring seat by the screw action as the wheel is rotated.
Did you know that there are other types of industrial valves too? Check out the EuroIndustriel page to browse through our selection of Industrial Valves.
A hollow ball is used by a ball valve to control fluid flow. The ball has a hole in it, and when the hole is lined up with the entrance to the flow, the fluid can go through. The ball is rotated by 90° to block the flow when the valve handle is rotated by a quarter turn.
Check valves are used in piping systems to prevent backflow. The valve opens when fluid pressure moves through the pipeline, and shuts when reverse flow occurs. This is a very important part of the different types of valves used in piping systems across industries.
Plug valves use a cylindrical or conical plug to restrict or allow fluid flow. The plug has one or more hollow tunnels that allow fluid to pass through when aligned with the flow direction. The plug must be turned with a quarter-turn rotating action to stop fluid flow. Plug valves work well in applications where slurry might blockage. The plug’s wiping motion prevents suspended particles from accumulating.
The term “butterfly” designates a rotating metal disc that is fixed to a rod. The valve can only be opened or closed with a quarter turn of the disc. The disk entirely closes up the passageway when it is in the closed position. When the disc is open, its face is parallel to the flow direction and virtually unlimited fluid flow is possible.
Globe and needle valves have a similar design. These valves use a long, tapered plunger that resembles a needle to seal the valve and stop the flow of fluid. The flow route is opened or closed by turning a stem to insert or retract the plunger. The plunger must be fully retracted after a number of spins on the finely threaded stem, which enables accurate flow rate management. In small diameter piping systems, needle valves are frequently utilized to achieve the most precise flow control possible.
In general, systems with low viscosity fluids moving at modest flow rates are suited for needle valves. The most typical usage is to control flow to delicate gauges to guard against damage from a rapid pressure rise. They can also be used as bleed valves to release pressure or drain fluid for maintenance or analysis.
With pinch valves, the flow through the elastic tubing is directly restricted by a pinching device. To make a seal, the pinching mechanism flattens the tube. Fluid flow can be started, stopped, and controlled using pinch valves.
A diaphragm valve has a thin, flexible diaphragm that rests on a seat when the valve is closed. A linear compressor is used to force the diaphragm against the seat, closing the valve.
There is a wide variety of valves used in piping systems, each with their own unique set of benefits and drawbacks. The type of valve you need will depend on the specific application and what functionality is required.
Euroindustriel are industry leaders in industrial valve designing and production, and can help you select the perfect valve for your needs. Our te